وبلاگ تخصصی شیمی
سلامی چو بوی خوش هیدروکربنهای آروماتیک برشما که قلبهایتان همچون فلزات قلیایی الکترون های وجودتان را سخاوتمندانه به ما بخشیدند و مستحکم ترین پیوندقلبی را ایجاد کردند ، ما از با شما بودن چیزی فراتر از استوکیومتری زندگی ومولاریته شادیها آموختیم امیدواریم محلول زندگی تان همواره شفاف و معادلات زندگی تان پیوسته موازنه شده و پیوند خانوادگی تان یونی ترین پیوندها و بختتان همواره به سفیدی سدیم کلرید و محلول زندگی تان از عشق و محبت فراسیرشده باشد با بیشترین درصد خلوص دوستتان داریم وبا بالاترین غلظت به شما خوشامد میگوئیم .با مادرتماس باشید.
مدیر وبلاگ : علی ناطقی
Photon energies associated with this part of the infrared (from 1 to 15 kcal/mole) are not large enough to excite electrons, but may induce vibrational excitation of covalently bonded atoms and groups. The covalent bonds in molecules are not rigid sticks or rods, such as found in molecular model kits, but are more like stiff springs that can be stretched and bent. The mobile nature of organic molecules was noted in the chapter concerning conformational isomers. We must now recognize that, in addition to the facile rotation of groups about single bonds, molecules experience a wide variety of vibrational motions, characteristic of their component atoms. Consequently, virtually all organic compounds will absorb infrared radiation that corresponds in energy to these vibrations. Infrared spectrometers, similar in principle to the UV-Visible spectrometer described elsewhere, permit chemists to obtain absorption spectra of compounds that are a unique reflection of their molecular structure. An example of such a spectrum is that of the flavoring agent vanillin, shown below.
The complexity of this spectrum is typical of most infrared spectra, and illustrates their use in identifying substances. The gap in the spectrum between 700 & 800 cm-1 is due to solvent (CCl4) absorption. Further analysis (below) will show that this spectrum also indicates the presence of an aldehyde function, a phenolic hydroxyl and a substituted benzene ring. The inverted display of absorption, compared with UV-Visible spectra, is characteristic. Thus a sample that did not absorb at all would record a horizontal line at 100% transmittance (top of the chart).
The frequency scale at the bottom of the chart is given in units of reciprocal centimeters (cm-1) rather than Hz, because the numbers are more manageable. The reciprocal centimeter is the number of wave cycles in one centimeter; whereas, frequency in cycles per second or Hz is equal to the number of wave cycles in 3*1010 cm (the distance covered by light in one second). Wavelength units are in micrometers, microns (μ), instead of nanometers for the same reason. Most infrared spectra are displayed on a linear frequency scale, as shown here, but in some older texts a linear wavelength scale is used. A calculator for interconverting these frequency and wavelength values is provided on the right. Simply enter the value to be converted in the appropriate box, press "Calculate" and the equivalent number will appear in the empty box.
2. Vibrational Spectroscopy
The exact frequency at which a given vibration occurs is determined by the strengths of the bonds involved and the mass of the component atoms. For a more detailed discussion of these factors Click Here. In practice, infrared spectra do not normally display separate absorption signals for each of the 3n-6 fundamental vibrational modes of a molecule. The number of observed absorptions may be increased by additive and subtractive interactions leading to combination tones and overtones of the fundamental vibrations, in much the same way that sound vibrations from a musical instrument interact. Furthermore, the number of observed absorptions may be decreased by molecular symmetry, spectrometer limitations, and spectroscopic selection rules. One selection rule that influences the intensity of infrared absorptions, is that a change in dipole moment should occur for a vibration to absorb infrared energy. Absorption bands associated with C=O bond stretching are usually very strong because a large change in the dipole takes place in that mode.
i) Stretching frequencies are higher than corresponding bending frequencies. (It is easier to bend a bond than to stretch or compress it.)
The general regions of the infrared spectrum in which various kinds of vibrational bands are observed are outlined in the following chart. Note that the blue colored sections above the dashed line refer to stretching vibrations, and the green colored band below the line encompasses bending vibrations. The complexity of infrared spectra in the 1450 to 600 cm-1 region makes it difficult to assign all the absorption bands, and because of the unique patterns found there, it is often called the fingerprint region. Absorption bands in the 4000 to 1450 cm-1 region are usually due to stretching vibrations of diatomic units, and this is sometimes called the group frequency region.
3. Group Frequencies
To illustrate the usefulness of infrared absorption spectra, examples for five C4H8O isomers are presented below their corresponding structural formulas. The five spectra may be examined in turn by clicking the "Toggle Spectra" button. Try to associate each spectrum (A - E) with one of the isomers in the row above it. When you have made assignments check your answers by clicking on the structure or name of each isomer.
4. Other Functional Groups
Test your ability to use information from infrared and mass spectrometry to identify an unknown compound. Clicking the button opens a display in which four different problems of this kind may be selected. Answers are provided once an effort to solve the problem has been made.
نوع مطلب : شیمی تجزیه، نانو شیمی،
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جمعه 13 خرداد 1390 11:55 ق.ظ
لطفا كتابها و پاور پوینت های شیمی و شیمی تجزیه دستگاهی مثل hnfra red, raman , ..... را برام میل كنید . با تشكر از سایت خوبتون
علی ناطقیسلام دوست عزیز اسپکتروسکوپی رامان را در وبلاگ قرار دادیم قابل دانلود.اما IR,TEM.SEM,XRD NMRبه زودی در وبلاگ قرار خواهد گرفت.دوستانی که عجله دارند می توانند برای ما میل بزنند.
دوشنبه 29 فروردین 1390 03:29 ب.ظ
Hi great article and thanks again Jalbtan about this subject let